Uma Shankar Sharma/Getty Images

What We Know About Monkeypox

Cases of monkeypox are on the rise in the United States, increasing the global incidence of monkeypox in countries that do not normally report the disease (countries where the disease is not endemic).

Although no deaths have been reported in the United States, monkeypox control is important to public health. Some people with monkey face may have small rashes or blemishes that are mistaken for something else.

Anyone can get monkeypox, but gay and bisexual men are disproportionately affected in the current outbreak. If you develop or think you may develop an unexplained rash or skin blemishes, see your doctor.

Monkeypox virus is a disease caused by the orthopoxvirus, and the virus that causes it belongs to the same family of viruses that cause smallpox and vaccinia. According to a CDC map, as of Thursday there were 156 confirmed cases of monkeypox in the United States, with California, New York, Illinois and Florida reporting the most cases.

The monkey head is endemic to West and Central Africa. Reports of him are rare in the United States, but he has never been heard of. (Two cases last year and 47 cases were reported in 2003 with outbreaks linked to prairie dogs.)

The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) warned health care providers last week in its warning about the spread of monkeypox in the United States that some Monkeypox cases may not be tested and could be mistaken for a monkeypox rash. . Additional) Other types of infections Other common infections, such as herpes.

CDC Director Dr. Rochelle Walinsky previously said that the current monkeypox infection causes people to develop acne that looks like pimples or blisters instead of a regular rash. Although the overall threat to the public remains low, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says it’s important for people and health care providers to detect symptoms early to contain the monkeypox outbreak that is occurring in many countries.

said Amish Adalja, an infectious disease expert and senior fellow at the Johns Hopkins Center for Health and Safety. He added that monkeypox is not new and that we already have some tools to stop the spread, including a smallpox vaccine.

Monkey Pox “Pox ” or an example of a rash.

What is monkeypox? How serious is it?

Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease that is transmitted from animals to humans. Although it is caused by an orthopoxid virus in the same family as the virus responsible for smallpox, smallpox is considered clinically more serious than monkeypox.

According to the World Health Organization, there are two types of monkeypox virus: the West African strain and the Congo Basin strain. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) announcement on May 26, the West African strain identified in the latest case has a mortality rate of less than 1%. According to the World Health Organization, mortality rates in the Congo Basin or Central Africa are up to 10% higher.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), monkeypox has killed 72 people this year in endemic countries, but there are currently no reported outbreaks in non-endemic countries, including the US.

According to the CDC, monkeypox was first discovered in the 1950s in colonies of monkeys under study, but has also been found in squirrels, mice and other animals. The first human case of infection was discovered in 1970.

How to get a monkey head? In relation to COVID?

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, monkeypox spreads between people primarily through infectious sores, mange, or contact with bodily fluids. polluting. Experts are currently investigating whether monkey head can be transmitted through semen or vaginal secretions.

Anyone can get monkeypox, but the number of recent cases in the United States have been in men who have had with men, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). . Close contact between you and your sexual partner can expose you to monkeypox, and the current outbreak is linked to social networking or sexual activity within certain communities.

The LGBT community tends to have “high community health and sexual awareness and immediate care-seeking behavior,” Dr. Hans Henry B. WHO Regional Director for Europe Kluge said in a statement. recent that people who want early medical care should be commended

Close contact is an essential part of monkeypox transmission. This, coupled with the fact that the virus that causes monkeypox appears to reproduce more slowly than the COVID-19 virus, sets it apart from the current COVID-19 pandemic, health center director Dr. Security said. of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health during a news conference in June, according to Tom Inglesby.

Les scientifiques en apprennent encore sur la variole du singe à de nouvelles épidémies, mais certains experts pensent que cela “ne fonctionne pas comme la grippe, le COVID, la variole ou la rougeole. La rougeole spreads rapidly dans la communauté , pas In the air”. Inglesby said. Immunity. “Behaves like a disease that requires close contact “.

Deputy Director of the Department of Pathogens and Corruption and Pathology, Dr. “It’s not like you can get monkeypox if you run into someone in a grocery store,” Jennifer McQuiston said during a May briefing with CDC. .

Since many recent cases of monkeypox in Europe cause genital sores and have symptoms similar to sexually transmitted diseases such as herpes, an unknown rash in the genital area should be diagnosed, said epidemiologist Dr. John Brooks. From the department of HIV/AIDS prevention during the May CDC briefing.

What are the symptoms of monkeypox?

The symptoms of monkeypox in humans are similar to (but milder than) those of smallpox, which the World Health Organization (WHO) declared eradicated in 1980.

Monkeypox infection usually begins with flu-like symptoms, including fatigue, severe headache, fever, and swollen lymph nodes. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a rash or ulcer develops within 1 to 3 days of the onset of fever and can appear anywhere on the body, including the hands, genitals, face, chest and the inside of the mouth. However, wherever a monkeypox rash or lesion appears, it may be flat or raised and filled with a clear or yellowish fluid, which will eventually dry up and fall off.

According to the CDC, monkeypox can spread until the inflammation heals and a new layer of skin forms. The illness usually lasts 2 to 4 weeks. According to the CDC, the incubation period is between 5 and 21 days.

Notably, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, some people do not have flu-like symptoms and may experience some or all of the common symptoms of monkeypox. For safe and social gatherings where you may have close contact with another person’s body, the CDC provides a fact sheet of practices to consider.

Importantly, Dr. Adalza said, “because monkeypox is not contagious during its incubation period, it does not have the ability to spread in such a way that certain viruses such as the flu or SARS-CoV-2 can spread”. .

According to the CDC, monkeypox lesions develop through a series of stages before mange.

Although the rash traditionally begins on the face and is generalized, blemishes on the monkey’s head may be limited, resemble acne or other ulcers, and do not always accompany pseudosymptoms.

Is there a vaccine against monkeypox?

Yes. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved JYNNEOS for the prevention of monkeypox and smallpox. Since monkeypox is closely related to smallpox, the smallpox vaccine is also effective against monkeypox. In addition to JYNNEOS, there is another smallpox vaccine in the United States called ACAM2000.

In some countries, a more dangerous contact vaccine has been given to people with monkeypox. This type of targeted vaccination, which Adalja calls “circulation vaccination,” involves vaccinating close contacts with health officials to isolate the infected person and prevent further spread. She said an antiviral drug that works for smallpox will also affect monkeypox.

The vaccine is intended for people infected with monkeypox but not yet showing symptoms, said Daniel Pastola, a professor of neurology, medicine and epidemiology at the Anschutz School of Medicine at the University of Washington, Colorado. In fact, the incubation period of the disease is very long.

“Basically what you’re doing is stimulating your immune system with a vaccine and making sure it recognizes the virus before it has a chance to multiply,” Pastola said.

In the UK, health officials have announced that they will provide a vaccine to certain people who have not yet been exposed but are at high risk of being exposed to monkeypox.

Although smallpox vaccines (and even boosters) are recommended by healthcare professionals and laboratories working directly with monkeypox, the original smallpox vaccine was not available to the general public and was not widely available in the US first. seventy. Therefore, the indirect immunity or “cross-protection” of the smallpox vaccine will be limited to the elderly, the World Health Organization (WHO) said. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), smallpox vaccination is 85% effective in preventing monkeypox.

big picture

According to Stolla, knowing the symptoms of monkeypox is helpful, especially if more cases occur in the United States, but there’s no reason to panic.

“This represents a public health need,” said Pastora. “As we have seen with COVID, it is very important to have a strong public health system and to support our public health system.

It also draws attention to the various viruses we live with. He said that all zoonotic diseases (including COVID-19) are potentially dangerous, so it is important to monitor them.

“This shows that there are many potential threats of zoonotic diseases, diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans,” Pastola said. “It represents the need for public health surveillance,” she said, “but it also shows that we must be careful and considerate in our interactions with wildlife and livestock.”

He said the situation was evolving, so the information was changing, as were the recommendations made by public health officials. The same goes for all diseases and new sciences.

The information in this article is provided for educational and informational purposes only and is not intended to provide health or medical advice. Always talk to your doctor or other qualified health care provider if you have any questions about your medical condition or health goals.

Article Source : https://www.cnet.com/health/medical/what-we-know-about-monkeypox/

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.